# Chapter 1. Visual Displays of Data: How Much Are You Willing to Give?

## 1.1Visual Displays of Data: How Much Are You Willing to Give?

VISUAL DISPLAYS OF DATA: HOW MUCH ARE YOU WILLING TO GIVE?
How Much Are You Willing to Give?
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You must read each slide, and complete any questions on the slide, in sequence.

Welcome

How Much Are You Willing to Give?

Authors:

Kelly M. Goedert, Seton Hall University

Susan A. Nolan, Seton Hall University

Kaylise D. Algrim, Seton Hall University

Hero Images/Getty Images

## 1.2

To investigate whether suggesting a default amount affects charitable giving, Goswami and Urminsky (2016) conducted an online study in which they told participants that they would be entered into a drawing to win \$20. The participants were then told about a charity and asked if they would be willing to donate part of their winnings to that charity (in the event that they won the drawing). Six donation levels were listed: \$0, \$0.50, \$2, \$5, \$10, and \$15, with one of the options preselected. The participant could either stick with the preselected donation level or select a different option.

image description
The line graph shows the donation rate decreasing as the pre-selected donation amount increases. The straight line slopes downward as it goes to the left. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and the scores range from “0” to “15” in increments of 5. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Donation rate;” at the bottom of the y-axis there is a “0” with cut marks above it and then the donation rates range from 50-80 in increments of 5. The line runs from a donation rate of about 75% for a pre-selected donation level of \$0 down to about 60% for a pre-selected donation level of \$15.

### Question 1.2

Correct! Increasing the preselected donation amount was associated with decreases in the donation rate.
Actually, increasing the preselected donation amount was associated with decreases in the donation rate.

## 1.3

image description
The line graph shows the donation rate decreasing as the pre-selected donation amount increases. The straight line slopes downward as it goes to the left. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and the scores range from “0” to “15” in increments of 5. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Donation rate;” at the bottom of the y-axis there is a “0” with cut marks above it and then the donation rates range from 50-80 in increments of 5. The line runs from a donation rate of about 75% for a pre-selected donation level of \$0 down to about 60% for a pre-selected donation level of \$15.

### Question 1.3

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
Correct! The researchers have graphed only a small portion of the y-axis. The result is that the steepness of the line is exaggerated. The relation between preselected donation and donation rate would look less impressive if the entire y-axis was graphed from 0% to 100%.
Actually, the researchers have graphed only a small portion of the y-axis. The result is that the steepness of the line is exaggerated. The relation between preselected donation and donation rate would look less impressive if the entire y-axis were graphed from 0% to 100%.

## 1.4

image description
The line graph shows the average donation size increasing as the pre-selected donation level in dollars increases. The straight line slopes upward as it goes to the right. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and the scores range from “0” to “15” in increments of 5. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Average donation size;” at the bottom of the y-axis there is a “0” with cut marks above it and then the amounts range from \$5-\$10 in increments of \$1. The line runs from an average donation size of \$6 for a pre-selected donation level of \$0 up to about \$7.50 for a pre-selected donation level of \$15.

### Question 1.4

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
Correct! Increasing the preselected donation amount was associated with increases in the average donation size.
Actually, increasing the preselected donation amount was associated with increases in the average donation size.

## 1.5

image description
The graph shows the differences in average earnings per person for the pre-selected donation level, which had three conditions (a control group with no pre-selected donation level, a “low” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$0.50, and a “high” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$15.00), broken down by information participants were given about the charity – either neutral information or positive information. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and there is a pair of vertical bars for each condition, one for participants who were told something neutral about the charity and one for participants who were told something positive about the charity, for a total of 6 bars. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Average earnings per person” and has tick marks from \$0 to \$7 in \$1 intervals. In the control group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$2 and a little over \$6, so the average earnings per person were almost \$4 greater for participants who were told something positive; in the \$0.50 group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$3 and a little over \$4, so the average earnings per person were about \$1 greater for participants who were told something positive; and in the \$15 group, both bars were at heights of about \$5.50, so the average earnings per person were about even.

### Question 1.5

Correct! The dependent variable is typically depicted on the y-axis. In this case, that is the earnings per person.
Actually, the dependent variable is typically depicted on the y-axis. In this case, that is the earnings per person.

## 1.6

image description
The graph shows the differences in average earnings per person for the pre-selected donation level, which had three conditions (a control group with no pre-selected donation level, a “low” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$0.50, and a “high” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$15.00), broken down by information participants were given about the charity – either neutral information or positive information. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and there is a pair of vertical bars for each condition, one for participants who were told something neutral about the charity and one for participants who were told something positive about the charity, for a total of 6 bars. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Average earnings per person” and has tick marks from \$0 to \$7 in \$1 intervals. In the control group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$2 and a little over \$6, so the average earnings per person were almost \$4 greater for participants who were told something positive; in the \$0.50 group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$3 and a little over \$4, so the average earnings per person were about \$1 greater for participants who were told something positive; and in the \$15 group, both bars were at heights of about \$5.50, so the average earnings per person were about even.

### Question 1.6

Correct! Independent variables are typically depicted on the x-axis and in the color-coded legend. Here we see the preselected donation level (control, \$0.50, and \$15) on the x-axis and the information type (positive, neutral) in the legend.
Actually, independent variables are typically depicted on the x-axis and in the color-coded legend. Here we see the preselected donation level (control, \$0.50, and \$15) on the x-axis and the information type (positive, neutral) in the legend.

## 1.7

image description
The graph shows the differences in average earnings per person for the pre-selected donation level, which had three conditions (a control group with no pre-selected donation level, a “low” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$0.50, and a “high” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$15.00), broken down by information participants were given about the charity – either neutral information or positive information. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and there is a pair of vertical bars for each condition, one for participants who were told something neutral about the charity and one for participants who were told something positive about the charity, for a total of 6 bars. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Average earnings per person” and has tick marks from \$0 to \$7 in \$1 intervals. In the control group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$2 and a little over \$6, so the average earnings per person were almost \$4 greater for participants who were told something positive; in the \$0.50 group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$3 and a little over \$4, so the average earnings per person were about \$1 greater for participants who were told something positive; and in the \$15 group, both bars were at heights of about \$5.50, so the average earnings per person were about even.

### Question 1.7

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Correct! This is a bar graph.
Actually, this is a bar graph.

## 1.8

image description
The graph shows the differences in average earnings per person for the pre-selected donation level, which had three conditions (a control group with no pre-selected donation level, a “low” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$0.50, and a “high” group with a pre-selected donation level of \$15.00), broken down by information participants were given about the charity – either neutral information or positive information. The horizontal x-axis is labeled “Pre-selected donation level in dollars” and there is a pair of vertical bars for each condition, one for participants who were told something neutral about the charity and one for participants who were told something positive about the charity, for a total of 6 bars. The vertical y-axis is labeled “Average earnings per person” and has tick marks from \$0 to \$7 in \$1 intervals. In the control group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$2 and a little over \$6, so the average earnings per person were almost \$4 greater for participants who were told something positive; in the \$0.50 group, the bars were at heights of a little over \$3 and a little over \$4, so the average earnings per person were about \$1 greater for participants who were told something positive; and in the \$15 group, both bars were at heights of about \$5.50, so the average earnings per person were about even.