Chapter 1. Equations

Introduction to Equations

Question 1.1

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Question 1.3

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Question 1.6

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Question 1.8

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Question 1.9

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Question 1.10

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Question 1.11

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Question 1.12

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Question 1.13

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Question 1.17

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Question 1.18

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Question 1.20

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Question 1.21

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Question 1.22

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Question 1.23

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

Question 1.26

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

Question 1.27

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

Question 1.30

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

Question 1.32

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

Question 1.34

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

Question 1.35

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

Question 1.36

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

Question 1.38

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

Question 1.39

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

Question 1.40

Limge5LFEf3TtSD1Q+HOkQnvhEVfDduoXDcjb0NmEzKoZZcBv5kN8xgEB+QesOysUCLtyYqVKvOv17zQSBDjuJg20M5T35LRH39DKKsv7r6cECTI/Sijn9YJskj2B+/sTkewE/uoHkSFzSSr/+MKO2I3zSFwY6PPxlyv1GLqtXjm5jgQWUsiBZjWNgZEKcCDrt5olQPV41uMeUPv4WVyo+wuKCGRIABmqAvEvN595XojoYV7+Cv1+4yO5lhB+c4ycTSa1rDDbUQR0tHcc7qJaZZKfuGufSomsCtluv5fzjqeXVQp1RFJYA6DidHUP/P81iDfDf9x71g4kNaMk/W8elaIKInd+a4AaVOJvTEA7AF82EIbZ4pGJcOcLbzWT3Wzukv0vPebaZJZYIWD0uIM+9bODIDjs+Gz8S+pm/o2hXQ=

Question 1.43

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

Question 1.46

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

Question 1.49

x63uZaw4+I5rQWVnryPw71Q72zDUa/vhh3kmgOB7tU5ipGZWphFgEydCnLediCwoeOQFOBgu/dcSIK3avYGuD4Opf0+aMcHG2T9DiIQChVDlBTxIab4F4DObPCib+0rfnw0TSdr34m5yBWAGPm1LwiOBgwMlDZMwbu16GA3pT9DOEg0WpLDRSI7mqEUqnBMhyjah77RoTtRZQcfc9a1gsoG9TW2+feY3sDUBoPYibiqjqWhGJ9b5dOK/vxqdUrHltEh0CtkWa3EN4T1x

Question 1.51

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

Question 1.54

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

Question 1.59

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

Question 1.61

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

Question 1.64

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