# Chapter 1. P-values and Statistical Significance

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Stat Tutor
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1:35

### Question 1.1

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Incorrect. We compute the probability on the statistic, not the parameter. So we have good evidence that the claim is not true when the probability on the statistic assuming the claim were true is really small.
Correct. We compute the probability on the statistic, not the parameter. So we have good evidence that the claim is not true when the probability on the statistic assuming the claim were true is really small.
Incorrect. Try again.
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3:19

### Question 1.2

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Incorrect. µ0 is the value given in the null hypothesis, so µ0 is 50.
Correct. µ0 is the value given in the null hypothesis, so µ0 is 50.
Incorrect. Try again.
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5:18

### Question 1.3

Incorrect. When the value of a test statistic is likely to occur if the parameter claim were true, then the results are NOT statistically significant. A test statistic value of 1.29 is likely to occur because it is between -2 and +2.
Correct. When the value of a test statistic is likely to occur if the parameter claim were true, then the results are NOT statistically significant. A test statistic value of 1.29 is likely to occur because it is between -2 and +2.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

### Question 1.4

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Incorrect. By using µ0 in the formula, we are assuming the parameter claim were true.
Correct. By using µ0 in the formula, we are assuming the parameter claim were true.
Incorrect. Try again.
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6:22

### Question 1.5

Incorrect. When the value of a test statistic is unlikely to occur if the parameter claim were true, then the results are statistically significant. A test statistic value of 3.86 is unlikely to occur because it is greater than +2.
Correct. When the value of a test statistic is unlikely to occur if the parameter claim were true, then the results are statistically significant. A test statistic value of 3.86 is unlikely to occur because it is greater than +2.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

### Question 1.6

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Incorrect. A test statistic value that is unlikely gives evidence against H0.
Correct. A test statistic value that is unlikely gives evidence against H0.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

7:25

### Question 1.7

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Incorrect. Actually, the opposite is true. The farther the observed statistic value is from the claimed parameter value, the more unlikely the statistic value is.
Correct. Actually, the opposite is true. The farther the observed statistic value is from the claimed parameter value, the more unlikely the statistic value is.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

8:19

### Question 1.8

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Incorrect. To determine whether results are statistically significant, we need to find the probability of getting the observed statistic value. Thus, "P" represents "probability."
Correct. To determine whether results are statistically significant, we need to find the probability of getting the observed statistic value. Thus, "P" represents "probability."
Incorrect. Try again.
2

### Question 1.9

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Incorrect. We compute the probability on getting a statistic value as far or farther from that observed.
Correct. We compute the probability on getting a statistic value as far or farther from that observed.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

11:40

### Question 1.10

Incorrect. P-value is the probability of getting a statistic assuming the null hypothesis were true. Actually, it is the probability of getting a statistic value as far or farther from that observed assuming the null hypothesis were true.
Correct. P-value is the probability of getting a statistic assuming the null hypothesis were true. Actually, it is the probability of getting a statistic value as far or farther from that observed assuming the null hypothesis were true.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

13:49

### Question 1.11

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Incorrect. P-value is the probability of getting a statistic assuming the null hypothesis were true. Actually, it is the probability of getting a statistic value as far or farther from that observed assuming the null hypothesis were true. Note that the probability is on getting the statistic, not on the hypothesis.
Correct. P-value is the probability of getting a statistic assuming the null hypothesis were true. Actually, it is the probability of getting a statistic value as far or farther from that observed assuming the null hypothesis were true. Note that the probability is on getting the statistic, not on the hypothesis.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

14:23

### Question 1.12

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Incorrect. This is a correct statement.
Correct. This is a correct statement.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

16:52

### Question 1.13

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Incorrect. The rule is "P" low - reject H "oh."
Correct. The rule is "P" low - reject H "oh."
Incorrect. Try again.
2

18:25

### Question 1.14

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Incorrect. We reject H0 and declare results to be "statistically significant" whenever P-value is small.
Correct. We reject H0 and declare results to be "statistically significant" whenever P-value is small.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

19:23

### Question 1.15

Incorrect. This is a correct statement.
Correct. This is a correct statement.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

### Question 1.16

Incorrect. The value of $$\alpha$$ is subjectively chosen by the researcher in the planning stage of a study.
Correct. The value of $$\alpha$$ is subjectively chosen by the researcher in the planning stage of a study.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

21:46

### Question 1.17

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Incorrect. Since P-value = 0.236 is NOT less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.10, we cannot reject H0.
Correct. Since P-value = 0.236 is NOT less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.10, we cannot reject H0.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

### Question 1.18

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Incorrect. Since P-value = 0.236 is NOT less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.10, results are NOT statistically significant.
Correct. Since P-value = 0.236 is NOT less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.10, results are NOT statistically significant.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

22:37

### Question 1.19

Incorrect. Since P-value = 0.017 is less than $$\alpha$$= 0.05, we reject H0.
Correct. Since P-value = 0.017 is less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.05, we reject H0.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

### Question 1.20

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Incorrect. Since P-value = 0.017 is less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.05, results are statistically significant.
Correct. Since P-value = 0.017 is less than $$\alpha$$ = 0.05, results are statistically significant.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

24:07

### Question 1.21

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Incorrect. P-value is the probability of getting a value of the test statistic assuming H0 were correct. It is a conditional probability - conditional on H0 being correct, not the probability that H0 is correct. Note that the probability is on the test statistic (or statistic), not H0.
Correct. P-value is the probability of getting a value of the test statistic assuming H0 were correct. It is a conditional probability - conditional on H0 being correct, not the probability that H0 is correct. Note that the probability is on the test statistic (or statistic), not H0.
Incorrect. Try again.
2

25:19

### Question 1.22

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Incorrect. We reject H0 whenever P-value is low; i.e., less than $$\alpha$$.
Correct. We reject H0 whenever P-value is low; i.e., less than $$\alpha$$.
Incorrect. Try again.
2